sndx-10q_20180930.htm

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

FORM 10-Q

 

(Mark One)

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2018

or

TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from                       to                     

Commission File Number: 001-37708

 

Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in Its Charter)

 

 

 

 

Delaware

32-0162505

(State or Other Jurisdiction of

Incorporation or Organization)

(IRS Employer

Identification No.)

 

 

35 Gatehouse Drive, Building D, Floor 3

Waltham, Massachusetts

02451

(Address of Principal Executive Offices)

(Zip Code)

(781) 419-1400

(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (Section 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.:

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

 

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes       No  

As of November 2, 2018, there were 24,835,951 shares of the registrant’s Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, outstanding.

 

 

 

 


 

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q contains forward-looking statements and information within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, which are subject to the “safe harbor” created by those sections. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “expect,” “would,” “plan,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential,” “intend,” “project” or “continue,” or the negative or plural of these terms or other comparable terminology.

Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

 

our estimates regarding our expenses, future revenues, anticipated capital requirements and our needs for additional financing;

 

the timing of the progress and receipt of data from the Phase 1b/2 clinical trials of entinostat in lung cancer, melanoma, microsatellite stable colorectal cancer, ovarian cancer, and triple negative breast cancer;

 

the timing of the progress and receipt of data from the Phase 3 clinical trial of entinostat in advanced hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative (HR+, HER2-) breast cancer;

 

the timing of the progress and receipt of data from the Phase 1 clinical trials of SNDX-6352 and the potential use of SNDX-6352 to treat various cancer and cancer-related indications;

 

the scope, timing of the commencement, progress and receipt of data from any other clinical trials that we and our collaborators may conduct;

 

our ability to replicate results in future clinical trials;

 

our expectations regarding the potential safety, efficacy or clinical utility of our product candidates;

 

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval for our product candidates and the timing or likelihood of regulatory filings and approvals for such candidates;

 

the potential use of entinostat to treat additional tumor types;

 

our ability to maintain our licenses with Bayer Pharma AG, Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd., UCB Biopharma Sprl, and Vitae Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Allergan plc;

 

the potential milestone and royalty payments under certain of our license agreements;

 

the implementation of our strategic plans for our business and development of our product candidates;

 

the scope of protection we establish and maintain for intellectual property rights covering our product candidates and our technology;

 

the market adoption of our product candidates by physicians and patients; and

 

developments relating to our competitors and our industry.

These statements are only current predictions and are subject to known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our or our industry’s actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from those anticipated by the forward-looking statements. We discuss many of these risks in this report in greater detail in the section titled “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this report. You should not rely upon forward-looking statements as predictions of future events.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, we cannot guarantee future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements. Except as required by law, we are under no duty to update or revise any of the forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.

 

ii


 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

 

 

Page

 

 

 

 

 

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Unaudited Financial Statements:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Loss for the three and nine months ended
September 30, 2018 and 2017

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2018
and 2017

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

16

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3.

 

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

24

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4.

 

Controls and Procedures

 

24

 

 

 

 

 

PART II. OTHER INFORMATION

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.

 

Legal Proceedings

 

25

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.

 

Risk Factors

 

25

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2.

 

Unregistered Sales of Equity Securities and Use of Proceeds

 

54

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6.

 

Exhibits

 

55

 

 

 

iii


 

Part I:

FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1:

Financial Statements

SYNDAX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(unaudited)

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

ASSETS

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

26,705

 

 

$

35,168

 

Restricted cash

 

 

101

 

 

 

106

 

Short-term investments

 

 

62,894

 

 

 

94,806

 

Prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

 

6,146

 

 

 

3,362

 

Total current assets

 

 

95,846

 

 

 

133,442

 

Long-term investments

 

 

 

 

 

3,246

 

Property and equipment, net

 

 

396

 

 

 

267

 

Other assets

 

 

225

 

 

 

231

 

Total assets

 

$

96,467

 

 

$

137,186

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$

3,180

 

 

$

2,232

 

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

 

12,319

 

 

 

11,993

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

1,517

 

 

 

1,573

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

17,016

 

 

 

15,798

 

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deferred revenue, less current portion

 

 

15,029

 

 

 

16,759

 

Other long-term liabilities

 

 

148

 

 

 

310

 

Total long-term liabilities

 

 

15,177

 

 

 

17,069

 

Total liabilities

 

 

32,193

 

 

 

32,867

 

Commitments

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preferred stock, $0.001 par value, 10,000,000 shares authorized; 0 shares

   outstanding at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 100,000,000 shares authorized; 24,051,364

   and 24,390,033 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2018 and

   December 31, 2017, respectively

 

 

2

 

 

 

2

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

484,893

 

 

 

470,571

 

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(35

)

 

 

(143

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(420,586

)

 

 

(366,111

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

64,274

 

 

 

104,319

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

96,467

 

 

$

137,186

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

1


 

SYNDAX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(unaudited)

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE LOSS

(In thousands, except share and per share data)

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Revenue:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

License fees

$

379

 

 

$

305

 

 

$

1,138

 

 

$

915

 

Total revenues

 

379

 

 

 

305

 

 

 

1,138

 

 

 

915

 

Operating expenses:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development

 

14,095

 

 

 

12,188

 

 

 

44,286

 

 

 

31,603

 

General and administrative

 

4,125

 

 

 

3,563

 

 

 

13,395

 

 

 

11,777

 

Total operating expenses

 

18,220

 

 

 

15,751

 

 

 

57,681

 

 

 

43,380

 

Loss from operations

 

(17,841

)

 

 

(15,446

)

 

 

(56,543

)

 

 

(42,465

)

Other income (expense):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest income, net

 

488

 

 

 

411

 

 

 

1,422

 

 

 

959

 

Other income (expense)

 

15

 

 

 

(53

)

 

 

(3

)

 

 

(193

)

Total other income (expense)

 

503

 

 

 

358

 

 

 

1,419

 

 

 

766

 

Net loss

$

(17,338

)

 

$

(15,088

)

 

$

(55,124

)

 

$

(41,699

)

Other comprehensive income (loss):

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities

$

54

 

 

$

(8

)

 

$

108

 

 

$

(28

)

Comprehensive loss

$

(17,284

)

 

$

(15,096

)

 

$

(55,016

)

 

$

(41,727

)

Net loss attributable to common stockholders

$

(17,338

)

 

$

(15,088

)

 

$

(55,124

)

 

$

(41,699

)

Net loss per share attributable to common stockholders—basic

   and diluted

$

(0.68

)

 

$

(0.68

)

 

$

(2.21

)

 

$

(2.08

)

Weighted-average number of common shares used to compute

   net loss per share attributable to common stockholders

   —basic and diluted

 

25,471,587

 

 

 

22,239,996

 

 

 

24,888,738

 

 

 

20,004,409

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

 

2


 

SYNDAX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(unaudited)

CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS

(In thousands)

 

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$

(55,124

)

 

$

(41,699

)

Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash from operating activities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depreciation, amortization and accretion

 

 

(282

)

 

 

233

 

Stock-based compensation

 

 

4,729

 

 

 

4,170

 

Other

 

 

(1

)

 

 

8

 

Changes in operating assets and liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prepaid expenses and other assets

 

 

(2,784

)

 

 

(248

)

Accounts payable

 

 

948

 

 

 

(206

)

Deferred revenue

 

 

(1,138

)

 

 

(915

)

Accrued expenses and other liabilities

 

 

164

 

 

 

4,008

 

Net cash used in operating activities

 

 

(53,488

)

 

 

(34,649

)

CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purchases of property and equipment

 

 

(173

)

 

 

(42

)

Purchases of short-term investments

 

 

(60,141

)

 

 

(113,012

)

Proceeds from sales and maturities of short-term investments

 

 

95,750

 

 

 

94,432

 

Net cash provided by (used in) investing activities

 

 

35,436

 

 

 

(18,622

)

CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock in follow-on public stock offering, net

 

 

 

 

 

48,674

 

Proceeds from issuance of common stock in at-the-market stock offering, net

 

 

9,438

 

 

 

1,121

 

Proceeds from stock option exercises

 

 

26

 

 

 

276

 

Proceeds from Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

 

129

 

 

 

39

 

Other

 

 

(9

)

 

 

(2

)

Net cash provided by financing activities

 

 

9,584

 

 

 

50,108

 

NET DECREASE IN CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH

 

 

(8,468

)

 

 

(3,163

)

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH—beginning of period

 

 

35,389

 

 

 

24,110

 

CASH, CASH EQUIVALENTS AND RESTRICTED CASH —end of period

 

$

26,921

 

 

$

20,947

 

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURE OF CASH FLOW INFORMATION:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF NONCASH INVESTING AND

   FINANCING ACTIVITIES:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property and equipment purchases included in accounts payable and accrued expenses

 

$

 

 

$

42

 

Vesting of restricted stock

 

$

 

 

$

59

 

 

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

3


 

SYNDAX PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.

(unaudited)

NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1. Nature of Business

Syndax Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“we,” “us,” “our” or the “Company”) is a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company developing an innovative pipeline of cancer therapies. We were incorporated in Delaware in 2005. We base our operations in Waltham, Massachusetts and we operate in one segment.

2. Basis of Presentation

The Company has prepared the accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”). Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in the Company’s annual financial statements have been condensed or omitted. The interim unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the annual audited financial statements and in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments, which include only normal recurring adjustments, necessary for the fair statement of the Company’s financial position as of September 30, 2018, and the results of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017. The results for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2018, any other interim periods, or any future year or period. These interim financial statements should be read in conjunction with the audited financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2017, and the notes thereto, which are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K that was filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) on March 8, 2018.

In 2011, the Company established a wholly owned subsidiary in the United Kingdom. There have been no activities for this entity to date. In 2014, the Company established a wholly owned U.S. subsidiary, Syndax Securities Corporation. The condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiaries. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.

3. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Significant Accounting Policies

The Company’s significant accounting policies, which are disclosed in the audited consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017 and the notes thereto are included in the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K that was filed with the SEC on March 8, 2018. Certain amounts reported in the previous year have been recast as a result of the retrospective adoption of new accounting standards in the first quarter of 2018. Refer to Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements and Note 4 "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" for further discussion.

Revenue Recognition

The Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification Rule 606 Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), on January 1, 2018, using the modified retrospective method for all contracts not completed as of the date of adoption. The reported results for 2018 reflect the application of ASC 606 guidance while the reported results for 2017 were prepared under the guidance of ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (ASC 605). For the Company’s accounting policy for revenue recognition under ASC 605, refer to Item 8 of the Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017.  As of January 1, 2018, the Company had only one contract within the scope of ASC 606, a license agreement with Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd. (“KHK”), under which the Company granted KHK an exclusive license to develop and commercialize entinostat in Japan and Korea (the “KHK License Agreement”). The KHK License Agreement is discussed further in Footnote 6.

The Company enters into license agreements for the development and commercialization of its product candidates. License agreements may include non-refundable upfront payments, contingent payments based on the occurrence of specified events under the Company’s license arrangements, partial or complete reimbursement of research and development expenses, and license fees and royalties on sales if they are successfully approved and commercialized. The Company’s performance obligations under the license agreements may include the transfer of intellectual property rights in the form of licenses, obligations to provide research and development services and related materials and participation on certain development and/or commercialization committees.

4


 

Revenue is recognized when, or as, performance obligations are satisfied, which occurs when control of the promised products or services is transferred to customers.  Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration the Company expects to receive in exchange for transferring products or services to a customer (“transaction price”). To the extent that the transaction price includes variable consideration, the Company estimates the amount of variable consideration that should be included in the transaction price utilizing the most likely amount method.  Variable consideration is included in the transaction price if, in the Company’s judgment, it is probable that a significant future reversal of cumulative revenue under the contract will not occur.  Estimates of variable consideration and determination of whether to include estimated amounts in the transaction price are based largely on an assessment of the Company’s anticipated performance and all information (historical, current and forecasted) that is reasonably available.

The Company assesses the promises to determine if they are distinct performance obligations. Once the performance obligations are determined, the transaction price is allocated based on a relative standalone selling price basis. Milestone payments and royalties are typically considered variable consideration at the outset of the contract and are recognized in the transaction price either upon occurrence or when the constraint of a probable reversal is no longer applicable.

Licenses of intellectual property: If the license to the Company’s intellectual property is determined to be distinct from the other performance obligations identified in the arrangement, the Company recognizes revenues from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the license when the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license. For licenses that are bundled with other promises, the Company utilizes judgment to assess the nature of the combined performance obligation to determine whether the combined performance obligation is satisfied over time or at a point in time and, if over time, the appropriate method of measuring progress for purposes of recognizing revenue from non-refundable, up-front fees. Arrangements containing licenses to the Company’s intellectual property typically provide for a know-how transfer period. These arrangements may or may not also include rights to future updates of that intellectual property and related know-how. Revenues from non-refundable, up-front fees allocated to the licenses are recognized as the license is transferred to the customer and the customer is able to use and benefit from the license. This generally takes place over the related know-how transfer period, or if applicable, over the term of transfer of future updates to the intellectual property.

Development Milestone Payments: At the inception of each arrangement that includes development milestone payments, the Company evaluates whether the milestones are considered probable of being reached and estimates the amount to be included in the transaction price using the most likely amount method.  If it is probable that a significant revenue reversal would not occur, the associated milestone value is included in the transaction price. Milestone payments that are not within the control of the Company or the licensee, such as regulatory approvals, are generally not considered probable of being achieved until those approvals are received. The transaction price is then allocated to each performance obligation on a relative stand-alone selling price basis, for which the Company recognizes revenue as or when the performance obligations under the contract are satisfied. At the end of each subsequent reporting period, the Company re-evaluates the probability of achievement of such development milestones and any related constraint, and if necessary, adjusts its estimate of the overall transaction price. Any such adjustments are recorded on a cumulative catch-up basis, which would affect license fees and earnings in the period of adjustment.  For development milestones related to the KHK Agreement, the Company does not take a substantive role or control the research, development or commercialization of any products generated by KHK. Therefore, the Company is not able to reasonably estimate when, if at all, any development milestone payments may be payable to the Company. As such, the development milestone payments associated with the KHK Agreement involve a substantial degree of uncertainty and risk that they may never be received.

Commercial Milestone Payments and Royalties: For arrangements that include sales-based royalties, including milestone payments based on the level of commercial sales, and the license is deemed to be the predominant item to which the royalties or commercial milestones relate, the Company will recognize revenue at the later of when the related sales occur or when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied). To date no commercial milestone payments or royalties have been achieved.

When no performance obligations are required of the Company, or following the completion of the performance obligation period, such amounts are recognized as revenue upon transfer of control of the goods or services to the customer. Generally, all amounts received or due other than sales-based milestones and royalties are classified as license fees. Sales-based milestones and royalties will be recognized as royalty revenue at the later of when the related sales occur or when the performance obligation to which some or all of the royalty has been allocated has been satisfied (or partially satisfied).

Deferred revenue arises from amounts received in advance of the culmination of the earnings process and is recognized as revenue in future periods as performance obligations are satisfied. Deferred revenue expected to be recognized within the next twelve months is classified as a current liability. Upfront payment contract liabilities resulting from the Company’s license agreements do not represent a financing component as the payment is not financing the transfer of goods or services, and the technology underlying the licenses granted reflects research and development expenses already incurred by the Company.

5


 

Use of Estimates

The preparation of condensed consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the condensed consolidated financial statements and the reported amounts of costs and expenses during the reporting period. The Company bases estimates and assumptions on historical experience when available and on various factors that it believes to be reasonable under the circumstances. The Company evaluates its estimates and assumptions on an ongoing basis. The Company’s actual results may differ from these estimates under different assumptions or conditions.

Recently Issued and Adopted Accounting Pronouncements

In June 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2018-07, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting (“ASU 2018-07”). ASU 2018-07 is intended to simplify several aspects of the accounting for nonemployee share-based payment transactions by expanding the scope of Topic 718 to include share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. This ASU is effective for public reporting companies for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. The Company is in the process of evaluating the effect of the new guidance on the Company’s consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.

In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation-Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting (“ASU 2017-09”). ASU 2017-09 provides guidance about which changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award require an entity to apply modification accounting. An entity should account for the effects of a modification unless all of the following are met: (1) the fair value (or calculated value or intrinsic value, if such an alternative measurement method is used) of the modified award is the same as the fair value (or calculated value or intrinsic value, if such an alternative measurement method is used) of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. If the modification does not affect any of the inputs to the valuation technique that the entity uses to value the award, the entity is not required to estimate the value immediately before and after the modification; (2) the vesting conditions of the modified award are the same as the vesting conditions of the original award immediately before the original award is modified; (3) the classification of the modified award as an equity instrument or a liability instrument is the same as the classification of the original award immediately before the original award is modified. The Company adopted ASU 2017-09 on January 1, 2018, and it did not have a material impact on its condensed consolidated balance sheet, condensed statement of comprehensive loss or condensed statement of cash flows. As part of the adoption of this guidance, the Company adopted a policy to account for the effects of a modification unless certain exclusions are met.

In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows (Topic 230): Restricted Cash (“ASU 2016-18”). ASU 2016-18 requires that restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents be included with cash and cash equivalents when reconciling the beginning-of-period and end-of-period total amounts shown on the statement of cash flows. The statement of cash flows must also explain the change during the period in the total of cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash or restricted cash equivalents. The Company adopted ASU 2016-18 on January 1, 2018, utilizing the retrospective transition method and it did not have a material impact on its condensed statement of cash flows. As part of the adoption of this guidance, the Company included restricted cash with cash and cash equivalents in the condensed statement of cash flows for the periods ending September 30, 2018 and 2017. The following table provides a reconciliation of the cash, cash equivalents, and restricted cash balances as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, as shown above:

 

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Cash and cash equivalents

$

26,705

 

 

$

35,168

 

Restricted cash included in current and noncurrent assets

 

216

 

 

 

221

 

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

$

26,921

 

 

$

35,389

 

 

In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842) (“ASU 2016-02”). Under ASU 2016-02, lessees will be required to recognize, for all leases of 12 months or more, a liability to make lease payments and a right-of-use asset representing the right to use the underlying asset for the lease term. Additionally, the guidance requires improved disclosures to help users of financial statements better understand the nature of an entity’s leasing activities. This ASU is effective for public reporting companies for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted, and must be adopted using a modified retrospective approach. The standard will be effective for the Company on January 1, 2019. The Company is currently assessing the impact of the standard, including optional practical expedients that the Company may elect upon adoption and is progressing with an implementation plan. The implementation plan includes identifying the Company’s lease population, updating the Company’s lease database and identifying changes to processes and controls. The Company is currently assessing the impact that this standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.

6


 

 

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“ASU 2014-09”). The Company adopted ASU 2014-09 and its related amendments (collectively known as ASC 606) effective on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method. See Note 4 "Revenue from Contracts with Customers" for the required disclosures related to the impact of adopting this standard and a discussion of the Company's updated policies related to revenue recognition.

4. Revenue from Contracts with Customers

Financial Statement Impact of Adopting ASC 606

On January 1, 2018, the Company adopted ASC 606 applying the modified retrospective method, which only impacted the accounting for the KHK License Agreement. As a result of applying the modified retrospective method to adopt the new revenue guidance, the following adjustments were made to accounts on the consolidated balance sheet as of January 1, 2018:

 

 

 

As Reported at

December 31,

2017

 

 

Adjustments

Due to ASC

606

 

 

Balance at

January 1,

2018

 

LIABILITIES AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

1,573

 

 

 

(56

)

 

 

1,517

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

15,798

 

 

 

(56

)

 

 

15,742

 

Long-term liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deferred revenue, less current portion

 

 

16,759

 

 

 

(593

)

 

 

16,166

 

Total long-term liabilities

 

 

17,069

 

 

 

(593

)

 

 

16,476

 

Total liabilities

 

 

32,867

 

 

 

(649

)

 

 

32,218

 

Stockholders’ equity:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(366,111

)

 

 

649

 

 

 

(365,462

)

Total stockholders’ equity

 

 

104,319

 

 

 

649

 

 

 

104,968

 

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity

 

$

137,186

 

 

 

 

 

$

137,186

 

 

Impact of New Revenue Guidance on Financial Statement Line Items

Results for reporting periods beginning after January 1, 2018 were presented under Topic 606, while prior period amounts were not adjusted and reported under the accounting standards in effect for the prior periods. The following tables show the impact on the reported condensed consolidated balance sheet for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, and the statement of income for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, for pro-forma amounts had the previous guidance been in effect (in thousands):

 

Financial Statement Line Item *

 

Increase (Decrease)

 

Condensed Consolidated Statement of Income

 

Three months ended

September 30, 2018

 

 

Nine months ended

September 30, 2018

 

License fee

 

 

(14

)

 

 

(42

)

Net loss

 

 

(14

)

 

 

(42

)

Comprehensive loss

 

 

(14

)

 

 

(42

)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet **

 

 

 

 

 

September 30, 2018

 

Current portion of deferred revenue

 

 

 

 

 

 

(56

)

Deferred revenue, less current portion

 

 

 

 

 

 

(551

)

Accumulated deficit

 

 

 

 

 

 

607

 

 

*

Excludes line items that were not affected by the Company’s adoption of ASC 606. The adoption had no impact to cash provided by or used in net operating, investing or financing activities in the Condensed Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.

**

Balance sheet line item amounts include the cumulative-effect adjustment recorded on December 31, 2017.

7


 

Impact to KHK License Agreement Revenue

Under ASC 606, the Company determined that the performance obligations associated with the KHK License Agreement include (i) the combined license, rights to access and use materials and data, and rights to additional intellectual property, and (ii) the clinical supply obligation. All other goods or services promised to KHK are immaterial in the context of the agreement. Under ASC 606, the identification of the clinical supply obligation as a distinct performance obligation separate and apart from the license performance obligation resulted in a change in the performance period.  The start of the performance period under ASC 606 was determined to be the contract inception date, December 19, 2014, as opposed to the initial delivery of the clinical trial materials in June 2015. The clinical supply was identified as a separate performance obligation under ASC 606 as (i) the Company is not providing a significant service of integration whereby the clinical supply and other promises are inputs into a combined output, (ii) the clinical supply does not significantly modify or customize the other promises nor is it significantly modified or customized by them, and (iii) the clinical supply is not highly interdependent or highly interrelated with the other promises in the agreement as KHK could choose not to purchase the clinical supply from the Company without significantly affecting the other promised goods or services. The Company further concluded that the clinical supply represented an immaterial performance obligation and therefore the entire $17.3 million allocated to the upfront payment was allocated to the combined license and will be recognized ratably over the performance period, representing contract inception though 2029. In 2017, KHK achieved a development milestone, and was required to pay the Company $5.0 million.  The Company is recognizing the development milestone consideration over the performance period coinciding with the license to intellectual property. As the Company determined that its performance obligations associated with the KHK Agreement at contract inception were not distinct and represented a single performance obligation, and that the obligations for goods and services provided would be completed over the performance period of the agreement, any payments received by the Company from KHK, including the upfront payment and progress-dependent development and regulatory milestone payments, are recognized as revenue using a time-based proportional performance model over the contract term (December 2014 through 2029) of the collaboration, within license fees. To date no commercial milestone payments or royalties have been achieved.

Contract liabilities consisted of deferred revenue, as presented on the consolidated balance sheet, as of September 30, 2018. Deferred revenue related to the KHK License Agreement was $16.5 million as of September 30, 2018 and will be recognized over the remainder of the contract term. The Company recognized license fees revenue of $0.4 million during the three months ended September 30, 2018 that was included in the deferred revenue balance as of January 1, 2018.

5. Net Loss per Share Attributable to Common Stockholders

Basic net loss per share attributable to common stockholders is computed by dividing the net loss attributable to common stockholders by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding for the period. Because the Company has reported a net loss for all periods presented, diluted net loss per common share is the same as basic net loss per common share for those periods. The following table summarizes the computation of basic and diluted net loss per share attributable to common stockholders of the Company:

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

(In thousands, except share and per

share data)

 

 

(In thousands, except share and per

share data)

 

Numerator—basic and diluted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

$

(17,338

)

 

$

(15,088

)

 

$

(55,124

)

 

$

(41,699

)

Net loss attributable to common

   stockholders—basic and diluted

$

(17,338

)

 

$

(15,088

)

 

$

(55,124

)

 

$

(41,699

)

Net loss per share attributable to common

   stockholders—basic and diluted

$

(0.68

)

 

$

(0.68

)

 

$

(2.21

)

 

$

(2.08

)

Denominator—basic and diluted:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted-average number of common shares

   used to compute net loss per share attributable

   to common stockholders—basic and diluted

 

25,471,587

 

 

 

22,239,996

 

 

 

24,888,738

 

 

 

20,004,409

 

 

8


 

The following potentially dilutive securities have been excluded from the computation of diluted weighted-average shares outstanding because such securities have an antidilutive impact due to losses reported (in common stock equivalent shares):

 

 

 

September 30,

 

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

Options to purchase common stock

 

 

4,272,646

 

 

 

3,286,936

 

Common stock warrant

 

 

 

 

 

357,840

 

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

 

29,736

 

 

 

11,321

 

 

6. Significant Agreements

Vitae Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

In October 2017, the Company entered into a license agreement (the “Allergan License Agreement”) with Vitae Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a subsidiary of Allergan plc (“Allergan”), under which Allergan granted the Company an exclusive, sublicensable, worldwide license to a portfolio of preclinical, orally available, small molecule inhibitors of the interaction of Menin with the Mixed Lineage Leukemia (“MLL”) protein (the “Menin Assets”). The Company made a nonrefundable upfront payment of $5.0 million to Allergan in the fourth quarter of 2017. Additionally, subject to the achievement of certain milestone events, the Company may be required to pay Allergan up to $99.0 million in one-time development and regulatory milestone payments over the term of the Allergan License Agreement. In the event that the Company or any of its affiliates or sublicensees commercializes the Menin Assets, the Company will also be obligated to pay Allergan low single to low double-digit royalties on sales, subject to reduction in certain circumstances, as well as up to an aggregate of $70.0 million in potential one-time, sales-based milestone payments based on achievement of certain annual sales thresholds. Under certain circumstances, the Company may be required to share a percentage of non-royalty income from sublicensees, subject to certain deductions, with Allergan. The Company is solely responsible for the development and commercialization of the Menin Assets. Each party may terminate the Allergan License Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach or insolvency; and the Company may terminate the Allergan License Agreement at will at any time upon advance written notice to Allergan. Allergan may terminate the Allergan License Agreement if the Company or any of its affiliates or sublicensees institutes a legal challenge to the validity, enforceability, or patentability of the licensed patent rights. Unless terminated earlier in accordance with its terms, the Allergan License Agreement will continue on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis until the later of: (i) the expiration of all of the licensed patent rights in such country; (ii) the expiration of all regulatory exclusivity applicable to the product in such country; and (iii) 10 years from the date of the first commercial sale of the product in such country. As of the date of the Allergan License Agreement, the asset acquired had no alternative future use nor had it reached a stage of technological feasibility. As the processes or activities that were acquired along with the license do not constitute a “business,” the transaction has been accounted for as an asset acquisition. 

UCB Biopharma Sprl

In 2016, the Company entered into a license agreement (the “UCB License Agreement”) with UCB Biopharma Sprl (“UCB”), under which UCB granted to the Company a worldwide, sublicenseable, exclusive license to UCB6352, which the Company refers to as SNDX-6352, an investigational new drug (“IND”) ready anti-CSF-1R monoclonal antibody. The Company made a nonrefundable upfront payment of $5.0 million to UCB in 2016. Additionally, subject to the achievement of certain milestone events, the Company may be required to pay UCB up to $119.5 million in one-time development and regulatory milestone payments over the term of the UCB License Agreement. In the event that the Company or any of its affiliates or sublicensees commercializes SNDX-6352, the Company will also be obligated to pay UCB low double-digit royalties on sales, subject to reduction in certain circumstances, as well as up to an aggregate of $250.0 million in potential one-time, sales-based milestone payments based on achievement of certain annual sales thresholds. Under certain circumstances, the Company may be required to share a percentage of non-royalty income from sublicensees, subject to certain deductions, with UCB. The Company is solely responsible for the development and commercialization of SNDX-6352, except that UCB is performing a limited set of transitional chemistry, manufacturing and control tasks related to SNDX-6352. Each party may terminate the UCB License Agreement for the other party’s uncured material breach or insolvency; and the Company may terminate the UCB License Agreement at will at any time upon advance written notice to UCB. UCB may terminate the UCB License Agreement if the Company or any of its affiliates or sublicensees institutes a legal challenge to the validity, enforceability, or patentability of the licensed patent rights. Unless terminated earlier in accordance with its terms, the UCB License Agreement will continue on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis until the later of: (i) the expiration of all of the licensed patent rights in such country; (ii) the expiration of all regulatory exclusivity applicable to the product in such country; and (iii) 10 years from the date of the first commercial sale of the product in such country. As of the date of the UCB License Agreement, the asset acquired had no alternative future use nor had it reached a stage of technological feasibility. As the processes or activities that were acquired along with the license do not constitute a “business,” the transaction has been accounted for as an asset acquisition. As a result, in 2016, the upfront payment of $5.0 million has been recorded as research and development expense in the condensed consolidated statement of comprehensive loss.

9


 

Kyowa Hakko Kirin Co., Ltd.

On December 19, 2014 (the “Effective Date”), the Company entered into the KHK License Agreement, under which the Company granted KHK an exclusive license to develop and commercialize entinostat in Japan and Korea. Under the terms of the KHK License Agreement, the Company will be responsible for the manufacture and supply of the products during the development activities. In addition to the license and manufacturing obligations, the Company is obligated to provide KHK access to know-how and regulatory information the Company may develop over the life of the entinostat patent. Lastly, to the extent additional intellectual property is developed during the term of the agreement, KHK will receive the right to the intellectual property when and if available. KHK will conduct the development, regulatory approval filings, and commercialization activities of entinostat in Japan and Korea. KHK paid the Company $25.0 million upfront, which included a $7.5 million equity investment and a $17.5 million non-refundable cash payment. In addition, to the extent certain development and commercial milestones are achieved, KHK will be required to pay the Company up to $75.0 million in milestone payments over the term of the license agreement. The term of the agreement commenced on the Effective Date and, unless earlier terminated in accordance with the terms of the agreement, will continue on a country-by-country and product-by-product basis, until the later of: (i) the date all valid claims of the last effective patent among the Company’s patents expires or is abandoned, withheld, or is otherwise invalidated in such country; and (ii) 15 years from the date of the first commercial sale of a product in the Japan or Korea.

The equity purchase and the up-front payment of the license fee were accounted for separately. The Company allocated the amount of consideration equal to the fair value of the shares on the Effective Date, which resulted in $7.7 million of proceeds allocated to the equity purchase and the remaining consideration of $17.3 million allocated to the up-front license fee.

In October 2017, the Company announced that KHK enrolled the first Japanese patient into a local pivotal study of entinostat for the treatment of hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative breast cancer. In accordance with the terms of the license agreement, KHK paid the Company a $5.0 million milestone payment which the Company received in December 2017. Please refer to Note 4, Revenue from Contracts, for further discussion related to the accounting for the milestone.

In October 2016, the Company entered into a clinical trial co-funding agreement with KHK under which the Company expanded its clinical trial agreement with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (the “ECOG Agreement”) to include enrollments from sites in Korea.

Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group

In March 2014, the Company entered into the ECOG Agreement with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group, a contracting entity for the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group—American College of Radiology Imaging Network Cancer Research Group (“ECOG-ACRIN”), that describes the parties’ obligations with respect to the NCI-sponsored pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial of entinostat. Under the terms of the ECOG Agreement, ECOG-ACRIN will perform this clinical trial in accordance with the clinical trial protocol and a mutually agreed scope of work. The Company is providing a fixed level of financial support for the clinical trial through an upfront payment of $0.7 million and a series of payments of up to $1.0 million each that are comprised of milestone payments through the completion of enrollment and time-based payments through the completion of patient monitoring post-enrollment. In addition, the Company is obligated to supply entinostat and placebo to ECOG-ACRIN for use in the clinical trial. During the second quarter of 2016, the ECOG Agreement was amended to provide additional study activities and the contractual obligation increased by $0.8 million. During the first quarter of 2017, the ECOG Agreement was amended to expand the study to include enrollments from sites in Korea and to provide additional study activities and the contractual obligation increased by $2.0 million. As of September 30, 2018, the Company’s aggregate payment obligations under this agreement were approximately $24.3 million; and its remaining payment obligations are approximately $10.2 million over an estimated period of approximately three years.

Data and inventions from the Phase 3 clinical trial are owned by ECOG-ACRIN. The Company has access to the data generated in the clinical trial, both directly from ECOG-ACRIN under the ECOG Agreement as well as from the NCI. Additionally, ECOG-ACRIN has granted the Company a non-exclusive royalty-free license to any inventions or discoveries that are derived from entinostat as a result of its use during the clinical trial, along with a first right to negotiate an exclusive license to any of these inventions or discoveries. Either party may terminate the ECOG Agreement in the event of an uncured material breach by the other party or if the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”) or National Cancer Institute (“NCI”) withdraws the authorization to perform the clinical trial in the United States. The parties may jointly terminate the ECOG Agreement if the parties agree that safety-related issues support termination of the clinical trial. The Company records the appropriate clinical trial expenses in its financial statements by matching those expenses with the period in which the services and efforts are expended. The Company accounts for these expenses according to the progress of the clinical trial as measured by patient enrollment and the timing of various aspects of the clinical trial. The Company determines accrual estimates through financial models, taking into account discussion with applicable personnel and ECOG-ACRIN as to the progress or state of consummation of the clinical trial or the services completed.

10


 

Bayer Pharma AG (formerly known as Bayer Schering Pharma AG)

In March 2007, the Company entered into a license agreement (the “Bayer Agreement”) with Bayer Schering Pharma AG (“Bayer”) for a worldwide, exclusive license to develop and commercialize entinostat and any other products containing the same active ingredient. Under the terms of the Bayer Agreement, the Company paid a nonrefundable upfront license fee of $2.0 million and is responsible for the development and marketing of entinostat. The Company recorded the $2.0 million license fee as research and development expense during the year ended December 31, 2007, as it had no alternative future use. The Company will pay Bayer royalties on a sliding scale based on net sales, if any, and make future milestone payments to Bayer of up to $150.0 million in the event that certain specified development and regulatory goals and sales levels are achieved. In June 2014, a development milestone was achieved, and the Company recorded $2.0 million of research and development expense, which has been fully paid.

In connection with the Bayer Agreement, the Company issued to Bayer a warrant to purchase the number of shares of the Company’s common stock equal to 1.75% of the shares of common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis as of the earlier of the date the warrant was exercised or the closing of the IPO. The warrant contained anti-dilution protection to maintain Bayer’s potential ownership at 1.75% of the shares of common stock outstanding on a fully diluted basis, requiring that the actual number of shares of common stock issuable pursuant to the warrant be increased or decreased for any changes in the fully diluted shares of common stock outstanding. The warrant was exercisable at an exercise price of $1.54 per share and would have expired upon the earlier of the 10-year anniversary of the closing of the IPO or the date of the consummation of a disposition transaction. The warrant was classified as a long-term liability and recorded at fair value with the changes in the fair value recorded in other expense. The Company used the Black-Scholes option-pricing model to determine the fair value of the warrant. Upon the closing of the IPO, the anti-dilution protection for the warrant expired, resulting in the reclassification of the warrant liability to additional paid-in capital. The warrant was re-measured using current assumptions just prior to the reclassification. On March 1, 2018, Bayer notified the Company of its election to exercise the warrant utilizing the net exercise feature contained therein, resulting in the Company’s issuance to Bayer of 299,215 shares of the Company’s common stock for no net cash proceeds.

7. Fair Value Measurements

The carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts payable, and accrued expenses approximated their estimated fair values due to the short-term nature of these financial instruments. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value are performed in a manner to maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The accounting standard describes a fair value hierarchy based on three levels of inputs, of which the first two are considered observable and the last unobservable, that may be used to measure fair value, which are the following:

 

 

Level 1—

Quoted prices in active markets that are accessible at the market date for identical unrestricted assets or liabilities.

 

Level 2—

Inputs other than Level 1 that are observable, either directly or indirectly, such as quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities; quoted prices in markets that are not active; or other inputs for which all significant inputs are observable or can be corroborated by observable market data for substantially the full term of the assets or liabilities.

 

Level 3—

Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.

During the periods presented, the Company has not changed the manner in which it values assets and liabilities that are measured at fair value using Level 3 inputs. The Company recognizes transfers between levels of the fair value hierarchy as of the end of the reporting period. There were no transfers within the hierarchy for any of periods presented.

11


 

A summary of the assets and liabilities carried at fair value in accordance with the hierarchy defined above is as follows:

 

 

 

Fair Value Measurements Using

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Quoted

 

 

Significant

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prices

 

 

Other

 

 

Significant

 

 

 

Total

 

 

in Active

 

 

Observable

 

 

Unobservable

 

 

 

Carrying

 

 

Markets

 

 

Inputs

 

 

Inputs

 

 

 

Value

 

 

(Level 1)

 

 

(Level 2)

 

 

(Level 3)

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

26,705

 

 

$

25,706

 

 

$

999

 

 

$

 

Short-term investments

 

 

62,894

 

 

 

 

 

 

62,894

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

89,599

 

 

$

25,706

 

 

$

63,893

 

 

$

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$

35,168

 

 

$

24,972

 

 

$

10,196

 

 

$

 

Short-term investments

 

 

94,806

 

 

 

 

 

94,806

 

 

 

 

Long-term investments

 

 

3,246

 

 

 

 

 

3,246

 

 

 

 

Total assets

 

$

133,220

 

 

$

24,972

 

 

$

108,248

 

 

$

 

 

Cash of $25.7 million and $25.0 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, consisted of overnight investments and money market funds and are classified within Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy because they are valued using quoted market prices in active markets. Cash equivalents of $1.0 million and $10.2 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, consisted of highly rated corporate bonds and commercial paper and are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy because pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date, and fair value is determined through the use of models or other valuation methodologies. Short-term investments of $62.9 million and $94.8 million as of September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively, and long-term investments of $3.2 million as of December 31, 2017 consisted of commercial paper and highly rated corporate bonds and are classified within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy because pricing inputs are other than quoted prices in active markets, which are either directly or indirectly observable as of the reporting date, and fair value is determined through the use of models or other valuation methodologies.

The short-term investments are classified as available-for-sale securities. As of September 30, 2018, the remaining contractual maturities of the available-for-sale securities were less than one year, and the balance in the Company’s accumulated other comprehensive income was comprised solely of activity related to the Company’s available-for-sale securities. There were no realized gains or losses recognized on the sale or maturity of available-for-sale securities during the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017. As a result, the Company did not reclassify any amounts out of accumulated other comprehensive income for the same periods. The Company has a limited number of available-for-sale securities in insignificant loss positions as of September 30, 2018, which the Company does not intend to sell and has concluded it will not be required to sell before recovery of the amortized cost for the investment at maturity. The following table summarizes the available-for-sale securities:

 

 

 

Amortized

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

Unrealized

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cost

 

 

Gains

 

 

Losses

 

 

Fair Value

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

$

31,725

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

(12

)

 

$

31,715

 

Corporate bonds

 

 

32,203

 

 

 

1

 

 

 

(26

)

 

$

32,178

 

 

 

$

63,928

 

 

$

3

 

 

$

(38

)

 

$

63,893

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial paper

 

$

36,567

 

 

$

 

 

$

(40

)

 

$

36,527

 

Corporate bonds

 

 

71,824

 

 

 

 

 

 

(103

)

 

 

71,721

 

 

 

$

108,391

 

 

$

 

 

$

(143

)

 

$

108,248

 

 

12


 

8. Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets

Prepaid expenses and other current assets consisted of the following:

 

 

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Short-term deposits

 

$

1,925

 

 

$

1,286

 

Prepaid clinical supplies

 

 

2,106

 

 

 

220

 

Interest receivable on investments

 

 

254

 

 

 

377

 

Reimbursable costs

 

 

1,142

 

 

 

1,029

 

Prepaid insurance

 

 

379

 

 

 

192

 

Other

 

 

340

 

 

 

258

 

Total prepaid expenses and other current assets

 

$

6,146

 

 

$

3,362

 

 

9. Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities

Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following:

 

 

 

September 30, 2018

 

 

December 31, 2017

 

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Accrued professional fees

 

$

624

 

 

$

265

 

Accrued compensation and related costs

 

 

2,321

 

 

 

2,393

 

Accrued clinical costs

 

 

9,043

 

 

 

9,177

 

Other

 

 

331

 

 

 

158

 

Total accrued expenses and other current liabilities

 

$

12,319

 

 

$

11,993

 

 

10. Stock-Based Compensation

In January 2018, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2015 Omnibus Incentive Plan (“2015 Plan”), was increased by 975,601 shares due to the automatic annual provision to increase shares available under the 2015 Plan. As of September 30, 2018, the total number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the 2015 Plan was 1,403,338. The Company recognized stock-based compensation expense related to the issuance of stock option awards to employees and non-employees and related to the 2015 Employee Stock Purchase Plan (“ESPP”) in the condensed consolidated statements of comprehensive loss as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Research and development

$

472

 

 

$

355

 

 

$

1,440

 

 

$

985

 

General and administrative

 

1,265

 

 

 

991

 

 

 

3,289

 

 

 

3,185

 

Total

$

1,737

 

 

$

1,346

 

 

$

4,729

 

 

$

4,170

 

 

Compensation expense by type of award in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was as follows:

 

 

Three Months Ended September 30,

 

 

Nine Months Ended September 30,

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2017

 

 

(In thousands)

 

 

(In thousands)

 

Stock options

$

1,701

 

 

$

1,329

 

 

$

4,635

 

 

$

4,153

 

Employee Stock Purchase Plan

 

36

 

 

 

17

 

 

 

94

 

 

 

17

 

Total

$

1,737

 

 

$

1,346

 

 

$

4,729

 

 

$

4,170

 

 

13


 

During the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, the Company granted 76,000 and 1,049,400 stock options to certain executives and employees. The grant date fair value of the options granted in the nine months ended September 30, 2018, was $6.5 million, or $6.17 per share on a weighted-average basis and will be recognized as compensation expense over the requisite service period of three to four years.

 

No options were exercised in the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 7,850 options exercised during the nine months ended September 30, 2018, resulting in total proceeds of $26,000. The intrinsic value of the options exercised was $91,000. In accordance with the Company’s policy, the shares were issued from a pool of shares reserved for issuance under the 2007 and 2015 Plans.

As of September 30, 2018, there was $10.3 million of unrecognized compensation cost related to employee and non-employee unvested stock options and unvested restricted stock share-based compensation arrangements granted under the 2015 and 2007 Plans, which is expected to be recognized over a weighted-average remaining service period of 2.5 years. Stock compensation costs have not been capitalized by the Company.   

11. Employee Stock Purchase Plan

In January 2018, the number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the ESPP, was increased by 243,900 shares as a result of the automatic increase provision of the ESPP. As of September 30, 2018, the total number of shares of common stock available for issuance under the ESPP was 651,453. The Company issued 24,684 shares during the first nine months of 2018.

The ESPP is considered a compensatory plan with the related compensation cost expensed over the six-month offering period starting on February 1 and on August 1. The compensation expense related to the ESPP for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 was approximately $36,000 and $94,000, respectively. The compensation expense related to the ESPP recorded in the three and nine months ended September 30, 2017 was approximately $17,000.

12. Stockholders’ Equity

The following table presents the changes in stockholders’ equity for the nine months ended September 30, 2018:

 

(In thousands, except share data)

 

Common Stock

$0.0001

Par Value

 

 

Additional

Paid-In

Capital

 

 

Accumulated

Other

Comprehensive

Income / (Loss)

 

 

Accumulated

Deficit

 

 

Total

Stockholders’

Equity

 

 

 

Shares

 

 

Amount

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balance as of December 31, 2017

 

 

24,390,033

 

 

$

2

 

 

$

470,571

 

 

$

(143

)

 

$

(366,111

)

 

$

104,319

 

Stock purchase under ESPP

 

 

24,684

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proceeds from 'At-the-market' offering, net

 

 

1,329,582

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,438

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9,438

 

Stock-based compensation expense

 

 </